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Populations must adapt to their environment to survive.

Living organisms have morphological, biochemical, and behavioral features that make them well adapted for life in the environments in which they are usually found. For example, consider the hollow bones and feathers of birds that enable them to fly, or the cryptic coloration that allows many organisms to hide from their predators or prey. These features may give the superficial appearance that organisms were designed by a creator (or engineer) to live in a particular environment. Evolutionary biology has demonstrated that adaptations arise through selection acting on a population through genetic variation.

Species evolved along different paths from a common ancestor.

All living species differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle, while in other cases the differences are dramatic. Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) proposed a classification that is still used today with slight changes. In the modern scheme, related species are grouped into genera, related genera into families, and so on. This hierarchical pattern of relationship produces a tree-like pattern, which implies a process of splitting and divergence from a common ancestor. While Linnaeus classified species using similar physical characteristics, modern evolutionary biologists also base classification on DNA analysis, which can distinguish between superficial resemblances between species and those which are due to common ancestry.

Biological evolution results from changes over time in the genetic constitution of species. The accumulation of genetic variations often, but not always, produces noticeable changes in the appearance or behavior of organisms. Evolution requires both the production of variation and the spread of some variants that replace others. [18]

Genetic variation arises through two processes, mutation and recombination. Mutation occurs when DNA is imperfectly copied during replication, or by changes in genetic material caused by such mutagens as radiation, leading to a difference between a parent's gene and that of its offspring. Some mutations affect only one bit in the DNA; others produce rearrangements of, or changes in, large blocks of DNA.

Recombination occurs when genes from two parents are shuffled to produce an offspring, as happens in every instance of sexual reproduction. Usually the two parents belong to the same species, but sometimes (especially in bacteria) genes move between more distantly related organisms.

The fate of any particular genetic variant depends on two processes, drift and selection. Drift refers to random fluctuations in gene frequency, and its effects are usually seen at the level of DNA. Ten flips of a coin do not always (or even usually) produce exactly five heads and five tails; drift refers to the same statistical issue applied to the transmission of genetic variants across generations. Genetic drift is inverse to population size; that is, genetic drift has a greater effect on small populations than larger ones. For example, if a small part of a population becomes geographically isolated its members will develop new traits faster.

Biblical scholars point out that the Bible is inerrant with respect to religious truth, not in matters that are of no significance to salvation . Augustine , considered by many the greatest Christian theologian, wrote in the early 5th century in his De Genesi ad litteram ( Literal Commentary on Genesis ):

It is also frequently asked what our belief must be about the form and shape of heaven, according to Sacred Scripture. Many scholars engage in lengthy discussions on these matters, but the sacred writers with their deeper wisdom have omitted them. Such subjects are of no profit for those who seek beatitude. And what is worse, they take up very precious time that ought to be given to what is spiritually beneficial . What concern is it of mine whether heaven is like a sphere and Earth is enclosed by it and suspended in the middle of the universe, or whether heaven is like a disk and the Earth is above it and hovering to one side.

Augustine adds later in the same chapter: “In the matter of the shape of heaven, the sacred writers did not wish to teach men facts that could be of no avail for their salvation.” Augustine is saying that the book of Genesis is not an elementary book of astronomy. It is a book about religion, and it is not the purpose of its religious authors to settle questions about the shape of the universe that are of no relevance whatsoever to how to seek salvation.

In the same vein, John Paul II said in 1981:

The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its make-up, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe . Sacred scripture wishes simply to declare that the world was created by God, and in order to teach this truth it expresses itself in the terms of the cosmology in use at the time of the writer.Any other teaching about the origin and make-up of the universe is alien to the intentions of the Bible, which does not wish to teach how the heavens were made but how one goes to heaven.

John Paul’s argument was clearly a response to Christian fundamentalists who see in Genesis a literal description of how the world was created by God. In modern times biblical fundamentalists have made up a minority of Christians, but they have periodically gained considerable public and political influence, particularly in the United States. Opposition to the teaching of evolution in the United States can largely be traced to two movements with 19th-century roots, Seventh-day Adventism ( see Adventist ) and Pentecostalism . Consistent with their emphasis on the seventh-day Sabbath as a memorial of the biblical Creation, Seventh-day Adventists have insisted on the recent creation of life and the universality of the Flood, which they believe deposited the fossil-bearing rocks. This distinctively Adventist interpretation of Genesis became the hard core of “creation science” in the late 20th century and was incorporated into the “balanced-treatment” laws of Arkansas and Louisiana (discussed below). Many Pentecostals, who generally FryeNaomi Flower Engineer 7jHqa
a literal interpretation of the Bible, also have adopted and FitFlop Tia Toe Thong Sandals 45GhAkZkn
the tenets of creation science, including the recent origin of Earth and a geology interpreted in terms of the Flood. They have differed from Seventh-day Adventists and other adherents of creation science, however, in their tolerance of diverse views and the limited import they attribute to the evolution-creation controversy.

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Stan Higgins
May 31, 2018 at 20:30 UTC |Updated May 31, 2018 at 20:33 UTC

A new patent application from Mastercard suggests that the payments giant is eyeing blockchain as part of a way to verify the authenticity of consumer coupons.

The application for a "Method and System for Authentication of Coupons via Blockchain" was published on May 31 by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). It envisions utilizing the tech "specifically [for] the storage of coupon data in a blockchain to ensure redemption only by authorized individuals and immutability of coupon data."

The idea is that blockchain can help reduce the risk of data manipulation that accompanies the use of certain types of systems for storing coupon data, including those that "have been developed that directly associate a coupon with a transaction account, to ensure that only the specified transaction account is eligible to redeem the coupon."

As Mastercard goes on to write:

"Thus, there is a need for a technological solution whereby coupons can be issued to an individual for redemption only by the individual, and where the system relies on a publicly accessible data source to enable implementation without the use of additional resources for the issuing entity," the company noted.

Whether an actual service offering comes out of the patent application remains to be seen – and Mastercard itself is no stranger to intellectual property bids related to the tech. That focus on authentication has been seen in other patent applications, including one focused on the prevention of fake identity use .

What is known, however, is that Mastercard has moved in recent months to beef up its internal blockchain-related development resources as part of a wider technology play.

"We're driving projects that promote financial inclusion at home and abroad, and are working to provide consumers, businesses and governments with the most innovative, safe and secure ways to pay,"Sonya Geelon, Mastercard Ireland's country manager, said in April.

"However, this requires the entity to store data regarding coupons that are associated with transaction accounts, which can be resource-intensive and subject to data manipulation. In addition, the entity must offer a suitable interface for the consumers to access the data storage to identify what coupons have been associated with their transaction account."

MasterCard patent application coupons

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ConsenSys: Business Analyst - Dublin

See the main article on this topic: Just a theory

Sometimes the phrase "evolution is only a theory" will be heard. This phrase rests on the common use of "theory" to mean what scientists call a "hypothesis," i.e., is something that is possible but not proven. Science, however, uses " theory " in a much different sense, namely as a testable model of the manner of interaction of a set of natural phenomena, capable of predicting future occurrences or observations of the same kind, and capable of being tested through experiment or observation. This sets it at a significantly higher level of reasoning than "wild and unproven guess," which is what is implied when this argument is mentioned. Also unlike "wild guesses", scientific theory is among the best explanations for phenomena, and scientists who successfully create new theories will often be famous. As Sheldon Cooper once said, "Evolution isn't an opinion, it's fact." [26] Note that creationists don't say that gravity is " only a theory ." And if anyone says you can't directly observe evolution, send them to Professor Lenski .

See the main article on this topic:

Strictly speaking, evolution is something that happens in the world of life, and should be distinguished from a theory of evolution , which is (according to the above definition) a model of how evolution occurs. Thus evolution bears the same relationship with a theory of evolution as flight with a theory of flight , or sound with a theory of sound , or planetary motion with a theory of planetary motion . This is often expressed in the saying that "Evolution is both a theory and a fact", that is to say, the word "evolution" can refer not only to the process (the "something that happens"), but also to a fact that it is observed under such-and-such circumstances, and to a theory that is involved with the process ("how it happens", "what the consequences are of it happening"). [27]

See the main article on this topic: Scientific consensus

One creationist claim is that there is a lack of support for evolution among scientists . This claim has for example been articulated, "Interestingly, ever since Charles Darwin 's book The Origin of Species was published in 1859, various aspects of the theory have been a matter of considerable disagreement even among top evolutionary scientists." [28] To counter this claim one need only note that scientists' disagreements are about details over the way that evolution functions - and not about the LAUREN Ralph Lauren Abbot 2Lj92
of it.

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